Scientific Publications

This section gives the overview of scientific publications. Publications are listed in reversed chronological order, i.e. new ones appear on top.
For each publication you will find title, abstract, full reference and DOI.
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Information for this can be found through the DOI.

Integrated planning framework for successful river restoration projects: upscaling lessons learnt from European case studies (Angelopoulos et al. 2017)

Despite considerable investment in river restoration projects, there is still limited information on the efficacy and success of river restoration activities. One of the main reasons is poor or improper project design, resulting in common problems such as: not addressing the root cause of habitat degradation; not establishing reference conditions, benchmarks and not defining endpoints against which to measure success; inappropriate uses of common restoration techniques because of lack of pre-planning; and inadequate monitoring or appraisal of restoration projects. In this paper peer-reviewed and grey literature and a large database of existing case studies were reviewed to identify the prevailing challenges river managers face when planning and developing river restoration projects. To overcome these current challenges an integrated project planning framework has been developed that incorporates adaptive management and project management techniques.

Hydromorphological restoration stimulates river ecosystem metabolism (Kupilas et al. 2017)

Both ecosystem structure and functioning determine ecosystem status and are important for the provision of goods and services to society. However, there is a paucity of research that couples functional measures with assessments of ecosystem structure. In mid-sized and large rivers, effects of restoration on key ecosystem processes, such as ecosystem metabolism, have rarely been addressed and remain poorly understood. We compared three reaches of the third-order, gravel-bed river Ruhr in Germany: two reaches restored with moderate (R1) and substantial effort (R2) and one upstream degraded reach (D). Hydromorphology, habitat composition, and hydrodynamics were assessed. We estimated gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) using the one-station open-channel diel dissolved oxygen change method over a 50-day period at the end of each reach.

Mechanistic modeling for predicting the effects of restoration, invasion and pollution on benthic invertebrate communities in rivers (Paillex et al. 2017)

Habitat destruction, biological invasions and water quality deterioration are serious threats to native communities and can lead to modifications in community composition and structure, and in ecosystem function. To predict the consequences of river restoration, biological invasions and water quality change in the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities in rivers, we extended the mechanistic model Streambugs, which describes growth, respiration and death of interacting taxa under given environmental

New tools for the hydromorphological assessment and monitoring of European streams (Rinaldi et al. 2016)

Hydromorphological stream assessment has significantly expanded over the last years, but a need has emerged from recent reviews for more comprehensive, process-based methods that consider the character and dynamics of the river with greater accuracy. With this as a focus, a series of hydromorphological tools have been developed and/or further extended in Europe within the context of the REFORM (REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management) project.

Characterising physical habitats and fluvial hydromorphology: A new system for the survey and classification of river geomorphic units (Belletti et al. 2017)

Geomorphic units are the elementary spatial physical features of the river mosaic at the reach scale that are nested within the overall hydromorphological structure of a river and its catchment. Geomorphic units also constitute the template of physical habitats for the biota. The assessment of river hydromorphological conditions is required by the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD) for the classification and monitoring of water bodies and is useful for establishing links between their physical and biological conditions.

Public values and preference certainty for stream restoration in forested watersheds in Finland (Lehtoranta et al 2017)

Agriculture and forestry activities increase the deposition of fine sediments in river and streambeds, with negative consequences for biodiversity and stream ecosystem functioning. However, little is known about the economic value of headwater stream restoration and the associated improvement in ecosystem services. Here, we apply the contingent valuation method to assess the awareness, knowledge, and values held by different stakeholder groups regarding a change in the set of ecosystem services related to the restoration of sediment-stressed forest streams in a large boreal catchment. 

Habitat rehabilitation in urban waterways: the ecological potential of bank protection structures for benthic invertebrates (Weber et al. 2017)

Compensating for the adverse ecological impacts of waterway development and improving their ecological functioning to achieve good ecological potential (GEP) have become mandatory within the European Union (EU). The technical rehabilitation measures presented here aim to functionally minimize the hydraulic impacts of navigation on aquatic biota in highly urbanized waterways. Their ecological functioning and potential to enhance biodiversity locally was assessed by comparing their macro-invertebrate community composition with nearby non-restored sites. 

Response of fish communities in rivers subjected to a high sediment load (Valero et al. 2016)

Erosion and sediment yield are a significant problem in the Guadalquivir River basin. Such phenomena are largely driven by a land use devoted to intensive cultivation of olive trees, with a large socioeconomic influence in Andalusia. This sediment overload in rivers causes serious impacts on all fluvial ecosystem components. In this study we assess the chronic effect of sediment yield on fish communities at 104 river sites located in two different sub-catchments – the Bembézar and Guadajoz rivers – both with different lithological composition and erosion rates. Sediment yield was estimated using a semi-quantitative Factorial Score Model (FSM), developed specifically for Spanish rivers. The fish populations of both basins were evaluated in composition and abundances by the study of Fernández-Delgado et al., 2014. The influence of sediment yield on the fish community was analyzed using General Additive Models.

Responses of fish and invertebrates to floods and droughts in Europe (Piniewski et al. 2016)

Floods and droughts, two opposite natural components of streamflow regimes, are known to regulate population size and species diversity. Quantifiable measures of these disturbances and their subsequent ecological responses are needed to synthesize the knowledge on flow–ecosystem relationships. This study for the first time combines the systematic review approach used to collect evidence on the ecological responses to floods and droughts in Europe with the statistical methods used to quantify the extreme events severity. 

Environmental and spatial controls of taxonomic versus trait composition of stream biota (Göthe et al. 2016)

The spatial organisation of biotic communities derives from factors operating at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Despite strong scientific evidence of prevalent spatial control of community composition in freshwater ecosystems, local environmental factors are often considered as the main drivers of community change. Furthermore, taxonomic approaches are most frequently used, and few studies have compared the relative importance of local and regional control of trait versus the taxonomic composition in stream ecosystems.

Using a spatially dense data set covering all stream sizes in a lowland European region of c. 42 000 km2 and three organism groups (macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fishes), we compared the relative importance of spatial and environmental determinants of species and trait composition in the study streams, classified into headwaters (stream order 1–2) and downstream sites (stream order >2).

Linking environmental flows to sediment dynamics (García de Jalón et al 2016)

This is a policy discussion paper aimed at addressing possible alternative approaches for environmental flows (e-Flows) assessment and identification within the context of best strategies for fluvial restoration. We focus on dammed rivers in Mediterranean regions. Fluvial species and their ecological integrity are the result of their evolutionary adaptation to river habitats. Flowing water is the main driver for development and maintenance of these habitats, which is why e-Flows are needed where societal demands are depleting water resources. Fluvial habitats are also shaped by the combined interaction of water, sediments, woody/organic material, and riparian vegetation. 

Effective restoration of aquatic ecosystems: scaling the barriers (Friberg et al 2016)

The focus of ecosystem restoration has recently shifted from pure rehabilitation objectives to both improving ecological functioning and the delivery of ecosystem services. However, these different targets need to be integrated to create a unified, synergistic, and balanced restoration approach. This should be done by combining state-of-the-art knowledge from natural and social sciences to create manageable units of restoration that consider both the temporal and multiple spatial scales of ecosystems, legislative units, and policy agendas. 

A new paradigm for biomonitoring: an example building on the Danish Stream Plant Index (Baattrup-Pedersen et al 2016)

Despite intensive efforts for more than a decade to develop Water Framework-compliant assessment systems, shortcomings continue to appear. In particular, the lack of reference conditions has hindered the development of assessment systems capturing the heart of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) – that ecological status should be set as the deviation from the natural, undisturbed condition. Recently, the Danish Stream Plant Index (DSPI) was developed. This system contrasts existing systems in that it builds on an expert interpretation of the normative definitions of ecological status classes in the WFD without taking pressure–impact relationships into account.

Effective River Restoration in the 21st Century: From Trial and Error to Novel Evidence-Based Approaches (Friberg et al. 2016)

This paper is a comprehensive and updated overview of river restoration and covers all relevant aspects from drivers of restoration, linkages between hydromorphology and biota, the current restoration paradigm, effects of restorations to future directions and ways forward in the way we conduct river restoration. A large part of this paper is based on the outcomes of the REFORM (REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management, project that was funded by EU's 7th Framework Programme (2011–15). REFORM included the most comprehensive comparison, to date, of existing river restorations across Europe and their effect on biota, both in relation to preintervention state and project size in terms of river length restored. The REFORM project outcomes are supplemented by an extensive literature review and two case studies to illustrate key points. 

Evaluating good-practice cases for river restoration across Europe: context, methodological framework, selected results and recommendations (Muhar et al. 2016)

This introductory paper presents 20 river restoration cases throughout Europe that were investigated in the EU-funded research project REFORM. In the following, this special issue provides seven specific papers that highlight and discuss the effects of restoration on the investigated river–floodplain systems. Additionally, restoration success was estimated from a socio-economic perspective. 

Preface: Effects of hydromorphological river restoration—a comprehensive field investigation of 20 European projects (Kail et al. 2016)

All over Europe, river stretches are being restored to achieve “good ecological status” or “good ecological potential,” the targets of the EU Water Framework Directive. Hydromorphological restoration is one of the most frequently applied methods, including re-meandering, widening, and the re-connection of river and floodplain. Within the EU-funded project Restoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM), an international team of scientists has addressed this question, by studying twenty restored river stretches in ten European catchments, always in comparison to a nearby non-restored stretch of the same river. Ten of the restored river sections represented a major restoration effort and a comparatively long restored river stretch, while the other ten restored sections were shorter. The special issue gives insight in the details of the study.

Time is no healer: increasing restoration age does not lead to improved benthic invertebrate communities in restored river reaches (Leps et al. 2016)

Evidence for successful restoration of riverine communities is scarce, particularly for benthic invertebrates. Among the multitude of reasons discussed so far for the lack of observed effects is too short of a time span between implementation and monitoring. Yet, studies that explicitly focus on the importance of restoration age are rare.

We present a comprehensive study based on 44 river restoration projects in Germany, focusing on standardized benthic invertebrate sampling. A broad gradient ranging from 1 to 25 years in restoration age was available. In contrast to clear improvements in habitat heterogeneity, benthic community responses to restoration were inconsistent when compared to control sections. 

The Hydromorphological Evaluation Tool (HYMET) (Klösch & Habersack 2016)

River engineering structures, such as bank protection or bed sills, act as constraints on the hydromorphology of rivers and limit morphodynamic processes. Accordingly, the deviations of a river's morphology from a natural reference condition have been attributed to the degree of artificiality in the observed river section and river restoration works mainly aimed at reducing artificial constraints within the river reach.

Long-term response of salmonid populations to habitat restoration in a boreal forest stream (Van Zyll de Jong & Cowx 2016)

Assessing the sustainability of restoration measures for salmonid populations and their habitat is limited due to a lack of long-term evaluations. In this paper we report on a study to assess the effect of boulder clusters, V-dams and half-log covers on stream habitat and population abundance of Atlantic salmon and brook trout two decades after installation. Structures were installed in Joe Farrell’s Brook, Newfoundland Canada in 1993 and fish population and habitat parameters were initially measured annually from 1993 to 1995. All stream sites were re-sampled in 2014. 

Quantifying the relative importance of natural variables, human disturbance and spatial processes in ecological status indicators of boreal lakes (Alahuhta & Aroviita 2016)

Spatial processes are increasingly associated with species distributions in freshwaters. However, these processes are usually neglected in bioassessment techniques, which may introduce uncontrolled variation in ecological indicators used to express human disturbance. We used partial linear regression to quantify the relative importance of natural variables, human disturbance and spatial variables in structuring variation in boreal lake status indicators based on six biological indicator groups (phytoplankton, macrophytes, diatoms, littoral and profundal macroinvertebrates and fish). 

Macrophytes in boreal streams: Characterizing and predicting native occurrence and abundance to assess human impact (Rääpysjärvi et al. 2016)

Macrophytes are a structurally and functionally essential element of stream ecosystems and therefore indispensable in assessment, protection and restoration of streams. Modelling based on continuous environmental gradients offers a potential approach to predict natural variability of communities and thereby improve detection of anthropogenic community change. Using data from minimally disturbed streams, we described natural macrophyte assemblages in pool and riffle habitats separately and in combination, and explored their variation across large scale environmental gradients. 

Meander reconnection method determines restoration success for macroinvertebrate communities in a German lowland river (Lorenz et al. 2016)

Re-meandering of degraded rivers is a frequently implemented measure in river restoration. A simple solution is reconnection of old meanders; however, its success likely depends on the reconnection method. We conducted a field study to analyze the benefits of a fully reconnected (fully opened meander, blocked main channel) and a partially reconnected meander (opened downstream, pipe bypass from main channel upstream, still open main channel) for macroinvertebrate communities in a German lowland river. 

Disentangling the responses of boreal stream assemblages to low stressor levels of diffuse pollution and altered channel morphology (Turunen et al. 2016)

Non-point diffuse pollution from land use and alteration of hydromorphology are among the most detrimental stressors to stream ecosystems. We explored the independent and interactive effects of morphological channel alteration (channelization for water transport of timber) and diffuse pollution on species richness and community structure of four organism groups in boreal streams: diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Furthermore, the effect of these stressors on stream condition was evaluated by Ecological Quality Ratios (EQR) from the national Water Framework Directive (WFD) assessment system.

Incorporating catchment to reach scale processes into hydromorphological assessment in the UK (England & Gurnell 2016)

Hydromorphological pressures and the measures undertaken to address them are an important element of the delivery of the WFD within the United Kingdom. While assessment procedures currently employed gather useful morphological information for river reaches and their immediate margins and some process information, crucial information on key processes is missing and information gathered on the riparian zone and floodplain is limited. This article presents a newly developed framework that enables existing data to be placed within a multiscale, process-based context.